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The water molecule

Science (from Latin scientia 'knowledge') is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the world.

The earliest roots of science can be traced to Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in around 3000 to 1200 BCE. Their contributions to mathematics, astronomy, and medicine entered and shaped Greek natural philosophy of classical antiquity, whereby formal attempts were made to provide explanations of events in the physical world based on natural causes. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, knowledge of Greek conceptions of the world deteriorated in Western Europe during the early centuries (400 to 1000 CE) of the Middle Ages, but was preserved in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age. The recovery and assimilation of Greek works and Islamic inquiries into Western Europe from the 10th to 13th century revived "natural philosophy", which was later transformed by the Scientific Revolution that began in the 16th century as new ideas and discoveries departed from previous Greek conceptions and traditions. The scientific method soon played a greater role in knowledge creation and it was not until the 19th century that many of the institutional and professional features of science began to take shape; along with the changing of "natural philosophy" to "natural science."

Modern science is typically divided into three major branches that consist of the natural sciences (e.g., biology, chemistry, and physics), which study nature in the broadest sense; the social sciences (e.g., economics, psychology, and sociology), which study individuals and societies; and the formal sciences (e.g., logic, mathematics, and theoretical computer science), which deal with symbols governed by rules. There is disagreement, however, on whether the formal sciences actually constitute a science as they do not rely on empirical evidence. Disciplines that use existing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, such as engineering and medicine, are described as applied sciences.

New knowledge in science is advanced by research from scientists who are motivated by curiosity about the world and a desire to solve problems. Contemporary scientific research is highly collaborative and is usually done by teams in academic and research institutions, government agencies, and companies. The practical impact of their work has led to the emergence of science policies that seek to influence the scientific enterprise by prioritizing the development of commercial products, armaments, health care, public infrastructure, and environmental protection. (Full article...)

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Paramecium aurelia, the best known of all ciliates. The bubbles throughout the cell are vacuoles. The entire surface is covered in cilia, which are blurred by their rapid movement. Cilia are short, hair-like projections that help with locomotion.

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Otto Hahn
Otto Hahn, (8 March 1879 – 28 July 1968) was a German chemist and Nobel laureate, a pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry. He is regarded as "the father of nuclear chemistry".

Hahn was a courageous opposer of Jewish persecution by the Nazi Party and after World War II he became a passionate campaigner against the use of nuclear energy as a weapon. He served as the last President of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG) in 1946 and as the founding President of the Max Planck Society (MPG) from 1948 to 1960. Considered by many to be a model for scholarly excellence and personal integrity, he became one of the most influential and revered citizens of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Science News

24 September 2021 –
In an article for Science, a team of researchers based at Bournemouth University conclude that a series of human footprints preserved at White Sands National Park in the U.S. state of New Mexico date back between 21,000 and 23,000 years ago during the Last Glacial Maximum, suggesting that humans lived in the Americas 5,000 years earlier than previously thought. The team also determined that most of the footprints came from children and teenagers. (NPR)
22 September 2021 –
Eight hatchlings from one of the world's rarest crocodile species are found in the Sre Pok Wildlife Sanctuary in eastern Cambodia, raising hopes for the continuing survival of the species in the wild. Conservationists found the baby Siamese crocodiles in a river earlier this month, according to a statement from Cambodia's Environment Ministry and the World Wildlife Fund. (9 News)
19 September 2021 –
Sixty-three African penguins are dead after being stung by a swarm of bees in Simon's Town, South Africa. The African penguin is an endangered species. (BBC)
18 September 2021 –
SpaceX's Inspiration4 mission lands in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Florida, completing the first all-civilian orbital spaceflight. (AFP via Mint)
30 August 2021 – COVID-19 pandemic
Scientists in South Africa detect a new variant of SARS-CoV-2 called C.1.2 which is associated with increased transmissibility and the ability to evade antibodies. The variant was first identified in Gauteng and Mpumalanga provinces and has spread to seven countries as of August 13. (Bloomberg)
17 August 2021 –
Researchers at the Graubuenden University of Applied Sciences in Switzerland announce that they have calculated pi to 62.8 trillion digits, a new world record. (The Guardian)

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